Goats and Cattle BLAD - Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency

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BLAD is a disease of Holstein cattle. It is characterized by:

  • recurrent bacterial infections
  • delayed wound healing
  • persistent neutrophilia
  • stunted growth
  • death at an early age

BLAD is a cogenital autosomal recessive disease. There is an deficiency in ß2-integrin of leukocytes. These glycoproteins - integrins - are vital to cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion reactions in the body. Such adhesions are center of anti-inflammatory reaction.

A gene known as CD18 was the suspected culprit - a point mutation was identified in this gene. The mutation causes an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G).

By investigation of pedigrees, all of the affected calves have now been traced to a common sire - Osborndale Ivanhoe - who has the largest impact of any single bull on the Holstein gene pool. The carrier frequency of the mutation among Holstein cattle in USA is approximately 15 % among active artificial insemination bulls and 8 % among cows.

We recommend to all breeders to examine the bulls that are admitted to the cows. We also recommend examination the heifers before first insemination or impregnation. If the heifers are carriers of CD18 mutation, exclude them from breeding. That leads to elimination of BLAD disease in population of Holstein cattle.

BL = BLAD positive
TL = BLAD negative

Methodology validation was made thanks to cooperation with University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.

Hajime Nagahata, Hiromi Nochi, Koichi Tamoto, Hiroyuki Taniyama, Hiroshi Noda, Mitsuo Morita, Misao Kanamaki and Gary J. Kociba: Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency in Holstein Cattle; Can J Vet Res 1993; 57: 255-261
Dale E. Shuster, Marcus E. Kehrli, Jr., Mark R. Ackermann, Robert O. Gilbert: Identification and prevalence of a genetic defect that cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992)
Hajime Nagahata, Takeo Miura, Keni tahali, Megumi Ohraje, Hirosho Noda, Taichi Yasuda, Katose Nioka: Prevalence and Allene frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan; J. Vet. Med. Sci. 59(4): 233-238, 1997
Czarnik U, Grzybowski G, Kamiński S, Prusak B, Zabolewicz T.: Effectiveness of a program aimed at the elimination of BLAD-carrier bulls from Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. J Appl Genet. 2007;48(4):375-7.

Usual turnaround time: 7 business days
1 test price: 39.44 $ without VAT